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Grapes as natural anti-oxidant source

The grapes cultivation has been known in the Middle East since 4000 BC. Only in the year 2500 BC, Egyptians developed the processing technology of wine. Now wine has spread worldwide and is a valuable economic commodity. Approximately 75,866 square kilometer area planted grape in the world.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2009), the ten largest wine producing countries in the world are: Italy, PRC, USA, France, Spain, Turkey, Iran, Argentina, Chile and India.

Grapes (Vitis vinifera) can be eaten raw or made vinegar, supplements / extracts, jelly, juice, raisins, oil, jam, wine also used as raw materials in the Confectionery. The seeds itself contain flavonoids, including kaempferol-3-O-glucosides, quercetin-3-Oglucosides, quercetin, and myricetin. Flavonoids are phytochemicals donor compounds in purple grape.

The fruit is also rich in anthocyanins, 3-glucosides, 3-acetylglucosides, 3-coumaroylglucosides, 3-caffeoylglucosides, 3.5-diglucosides, 3-acetyl-5-diglucosides, 3-coumaroyl-5-diglucosides, and 3-caffeoyl-5 -diglucosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, and mal-vidin.

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Grapes have antidiabetic effects. GSPE (grape seed proanthocyanidin extract) is reportedly effective in treating diabetic nephropathy. GPSE (250 mg / kg body weight / day) also repair heart damage associated with glycation in experimental animals.

Grape seed extract has antioxidant activity and an antidote to free radicals. Procyanidin inhibits xanthine oxidase activity; enzyme triggers oxy-radical cascade. In addition, procyanidin B4, catechin, and gallic acid is reported as an agent preventing oxidative DNA damage at the cellular level.

Flavonoids in wine serves as a potent antioxidant that works as a cancer preventative, can inhibit the oxidation of LDL in the coronary vessel wall, has antimicrobial effects, improve endothelial function, inhibit atherosclerosis (fatty deposits in blood vessels).

Quercetin is a phytochemical that includes flavonoids, have antioxidant activity, inhibiting protein kinases and DNA topoisomerases, regulate gene expression, also modulate the expression of genes associated with oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.

Quercetin is able to change the expression of cell cycle regulators and apoptotic proteins so as to effectively prevent prostate cancer, mutation of the p53 protein and inhibits the G2-M phase so as to effectively prevent breast cancer, inhibits cell differentiation so that either prevent malignancy of colorectal (colon and rectum), also play a role in the phase G2 / M, so the potential to treat leukemia. Further research is needed on these findings.

Actually, resveratrol has been known for centuries in Asian medicine as Ko-jo-con, in the form of flour / powdered root of Polygonum cuspidatum, as anti-inflammatory drugs. Interestingly, resveratrol in grape skin serves as a powerful antioxidant, protective effect against ischemia reperfusion events (lack of blood supply), especially in skeletal muscle mice.

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